Culture might be labelled the sum of values, attitudes, and beliefs. Social capital can be described as networks of trusted relationships. Political culture–values, attitudes, and beliefs about power–pervade societies and relationships. One of the challenges of states today is that culture and networks of relationships may not change as quickly as the circumstances that affect human and national security. Demographic changes mean that many developed states need immigrant labour, but this may be resisted. Skilled immigrants may be unable to take up essential work because they lack the social capital to find positions and secure employment. Climate change, wars, and environmental shocks may disrupt economies and generate survival migration that can destabilize societies, making them vulnerable to security shocks, or a sense of vulnerability that may erode confidence in government institutions (Huysmans, 2000). Market forces (neoliberal ideas) are pressing governments to respond to common problems with a “lifeboat” mentality of scarcity, which may guarantee that the common problems cannot be effectively addressed (Felli and Castree, 2012). Some shifts in political culture might be essential for survival, while others might be counter-productive, but how can we see them, understand their impact, and design policies to work with rather than fight against changing political cultures?
To be confirmed by instructor after consultation with class coordinators
Consider the following questions for discussion
Activities during class
Coordinators may consider the following activities:
Boix and Stokes, Ch. 11, National Identity
Caramani, Ch. 17 Political Culture (Moodle)
Dickovick and Eastwood, Ch. 5
Ethnologue, Languages of the World
Eurobarometer, Primary data and related documentation
European Social Survey
Felli, R., & Castree, N. (2012). Neoliberalising adaptation to environmental change:
foresight or foreclosure?. Environment and Planning A, 44(1), 1-4.
Greenfeld, L. (1993) Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity. Summary.
Huysmans, J. (2000). The European Union and the securitization of migration
JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 38(5), 751-777.
Orvis and Dogus, Ch. 4, States and Identity
Otto, I. M., Reckien, D., Reyer, C. P., Marcus, R., Le Masson, V., Jones, L., … & Serdeczny, O. (2017). Social vulnerability to climate change: A review of concepts and evidence. Regional environmental change, 17(6), 1651-1662.
Pew World Values Survey
Woolcock, M. and Nanyan, D. (1999) Social Capital: Implications for Development Theory, Research, and Policy.
Woolcock, M. (2000) Social Capital and Economic Development
Institute for Comparative Survey Research, World Values Survey, Vienna.